Using Forum

Using Forum

Note: You are presently viewing documentation for Moodle Two.Trio. Up-to-date documentation for the latest stable version is available here: Using Forum.

  • Forum settings
  • Using Forum
  • Forum FAQ

The teacher can set the format of what the student sees under the introduction by selecting the forum type in Forum settings.



A single ordinary discussion

Students will see the text you have placed in the Forum introduction setting as the very first post of the discussion. Below you will find the replies that have been posted. In the example below, the student sees that their reply was rated.

Each person posts one discussion

The view will be basically the same as in the previous case, the only difference being the ‘Add a fresh discussion’ option. Viewing a forum page, the student will see the text you have written at the ‘Forum introduction’ space while creating the forum, and, if there are any, the discussions that have been embarked.

Standard forum for general use

In this forum type, students will see the introduction text in a separate space above the discussion field, in which you will see the information such as the title of the discussion (which means the forum’s title), its author, the number of replies and the date of the last post.

Question and Reaction forum

The Q & A forum is best used when you have a particular question that you wish to have answered. In a Q and A forum, teachers post the question and students react with possible answers. By default a Q]and A forum requires students to post once before viewing other students’ postings. More details here

Standard forum displayed in blog-like format

In the upper right corner of the home forum screen (above the introduction), the student may see the options the teacher has set for subscriptions to the forum, and the ‘Hop to’ field, with which you can ‘hop’ to any part of the course. This is also place where the teacher will find the “Update this forum” button.

Display options

Forum posting

The default content of Subject is usually ‘Re: <the name of the ‘parent’ post>’. You can switch it however.

When writing text in Moodle there are several formats you can choose to produce your text, depending on your expertise and the type of browser you are using. Please refer to Formatting text for further information.

Sharing photos through forums

  • When an picture is “affixed” as a file to a forum message, it is instantly displayed utter size after the message (i.e. no need to click on an attachment). This an excellent way of sharing photos without having to go through the process of uploading them as files and linking them from within web pages.
  • Pictures may be dragged and dropped into the box as well as uploading via the “add” link and the File picker. Fresh feature

    Sharing sound and movie through forums

  • If multimedia filters are enabled, a sound file (mp3) or accepted movie file can be fastened and it will be embedded into the forum post in an suitable player.
  • As with pictures in the previous section, multimedia files may be dragged and dropped from the desktop instead of uploaded via the File picker.

Post length

Extra-long posts cause problems when doing a forum search and can be difficult to read on screen. Rather than creating a very long post, consider copying and pasting the text into a text file and add it as an attachment to your forum post.

Post editing time limit

There is a time limit for editing posts, usually thirty minutes. It is set by an administrator in Administration > Security > Site policies.

The Using Moodle forum discussion The philosophy underlying “no editing after thirty minutes” includes reasons why it is a good idea to have a time limit for editing posts.

Mail now

A mail now checkbox is available for anyone with the capability to manage course activities, normally teachers and admins.

Checking the “Mail now” box results in an email being sent instantly (i.e. when the cron next runs) to everyone subscribed to the forum, rather than after the post editing time limit.

Exporting forum posts

To export a forum, you must very first have Portfolios enabled and configured.

Users with the mod/forum:exportdiscussion or mod/forum:exportownpost or mod/forum:exportpost permission can export forum posts to any portfolio the administrator has enabled:

Moving a discussion

Teachers and other users with the capability to budge discussions can budge a discussion to any other forum in the course for which they have adequate rights.

  1. Click on the arrow in the ‘Budge this discussion to. ‘ dropdown menu in the top right corner of the page and select a destination forum.
  2. Click the Budge button.

Guidelines for Training and Learning Forums

When you determine to use a discussion forum as an activity in an e-learning environment, it is significant to be aware that your time will be needed in some sense in order to make the activity successful. If your purpose is to encourage discussion, the forum will only work if:

a) participants feel there is a need/reason to participate and they will build up something from the practice. Incentives for learning, gathering support, etc. should be explored and encouraged early on in order to clearly convey the purpose of the forum to others. Anyone considering suggesting grades or marks for participation is advised to think very cautiously about the difference inbetween quantity and quality of discussions in forums.

b) a sense of community and purpose can be fostered amongst participants. This sense of community can be fostered through tutor/teacher initiative and scaffolding, or primarily through the students/participants themselves depending on the intentions of the activity.

Selecting forum type

Moodle has four kinds of forums each with a slightly different layout and purpose.

Which of the forums will best suit your needs for a particular activity? In order to reaction this question, it is useful to think how you might lead such a discussion in a face-to-face environment. Would you throw the question out to the class and sit back to observe them in their answers? Or would you break them up into smaller groups very first and ask them to have discussions with a playmate before bringing them back to the main group? Or perhaps you would like to keep them focused on a particular aspect of a question and ensure that they do not wander away from the topic at mitt? All of the above approaches are both valid and useful, depending on your learning outcomes, and you can replicate all of them in Moodle forums.

A standard forum for general use

The standard forum (view here) most likely most useful for large discussions that you intend to monitor/guide or for social forums that are student led. This does not mean that you need to make a fresh posting for each reply in each topic, albeit, in order to ensure that the discussion does not get ‘out of control’, you may need to be ready to spend a significant amount of time finding the common threads amongst the various discussions and weaving them together. Providing overall remarks for particular topics can also be a key aspect of your responsibilities in the discussion. Alternatively, you could ask students to summarize discussion topics at agreed points, once a week or when a thread comes to an agreed conclusion. Such a learner-centred treatment may be particularly useful once the online community has been established and, perhaps, when you have modeled the summarizing process.

A single ordinary discussion

The ordinary forum (view here) is most useful for brief/time-limited discussion on a single subject or topic. This kind of forum is very productive if you are interested in keeping students focused on a particular issue.

Each person posts one discussion

This forum (view here) is most useful when you want to achieve a glad medium inbetween a large discussion and a brief and focused discussion. A single discussion topic per person permits students a little more freedom than a single discussion forum, but not as much as a standard forum where each student can create as many topics as he or she wishes. Successful forums of this selection can be active, yet focused, as students are not limited in the number of times they can react to others within threads.

Question and Response forum

The Q & A forum (view here) is best used when you have a particular question that you wish to have answered. In a Q and A forum, tutors post the question and students react with possible answers. By default a Q and A forum requires students to post once before viewing other students’ postings. After the initial posting and once the editing time (usually thirty minutes) has elapsed, students can view and react to others’ postings. This feature permits equal initial posting chance among all students, thus encouraging original and independent thinking.

Note: Students do not see the “add a fresh question” button in the Q & A forum. If you wish students to be able to add fresh questions, they need to be given the capability mod/forum:addquestion

Standard forum displayed in blog-like format

This forum behaves in the same way as the default standard forum for general use, permitting users to commence their own discussions. However, it displays differently in that the very first post of each discussion is displayed (as in a blog) so that users can read it and then choose to react by clicking the “Discuss this topic” button bottom right of the post.

Tips for Question and Response

When the Question and Response mode is selected, Moodle hides the replies to the initial thread post by the teacher but not the entire forum itself.

Peak: Post each question as a thread in the forum and then have students post replies to the question. In this style, Moodle will protect the replies from being viewable (subject to the caveat above) by other students but permit the initial post/thread visible for reply by all students. Peak: Do not post the question in the forum summary because every student response will become a thread and visible to all students. In this script, it may emerge as if the Question and Reaction forum is not working correctly, since the fresh initial posts in the thread are intentionally designed not to be hidden, just their replies. Peak: If you have set up groups for your forum the facilitator needs to post a question to each of the groups and not to ‘all participants’ as questions asked of all participants (students) are able to be read by ALL students. Questions posed to group members are only visible to those group members and replies are only visible once a group member has posted a message.

Forum subscription

When a person is subscribed to a forum it means that they will be notified (according to their Messaging settings preferences) of every subsequent post in that forum. Posters have thirty minutes by default to edit their post before it is sent tho’ this time limit can be switched by an administrator.

People can usually choose whether or not they want to be subscribed to each forum. However, if a teacher compels subscription on a particular forum then this choice is taken away and everyone in the class will get notified.This is especially useful in the News forum and in forums towards the beginning of the course (before everyone has worked out that they can subscribe to these emails themselves).

Note that even if you force subscriptions every user can elect not to be notified in Messaging settings, or elect to have all email sent once a day in a digest contain either all posts or simply the subject headings.

Choosing Everyone can choose to be subscribed enables you to check (and modify) the number of subscribers (‘Showcase/edit current subscribers’) and to subscribe to (or unsubscribe from) the forum (‘Subscribe to this forum’ / ‘Unsubscribe from this forum’).

An overview of your forum subscriptions is available on the forums index page e.g.

Concepts for use in forums

Participation and Scaffolding

Whilst one of the good advantages of e-learning is the plasticity it affords participants, this does not mean that days or weeks should pass without response and discussion in a forum (unless it is adequate for it to do so). This is perhaps most especially true at the beginning of a course or programme when students and tutors are fresh to each other and in need of welcome messages/encouragement. Whilst e-learning, and discussions in particular, can support learning that is not always tutor/teacher-centred, your role will be significant, especially as an online community embarks to develop. It is during these initial stages of introductory material that a group of students can become a community of participants who begin to grow in their understandings of course material and individual contributions to the skill construction process.

As the discussions progress and learners become familiar to the mechanics and the tone of the forums then there are key ways in which your input can be diminished, thereby helping to foster a community that is less dependent on the tutor/teacher. Even then, however, you will very likely want to be a presence in the discussions albeit you may choose to be one of many contributors rather than the font of all wisdom.

Commitment and Participation

Ask yourself if

  1. you wish to have involvement in the forum or if you want the students to lead and own the space
  2. you want the forum to add value to the face to face environment or have a life of its own in its own right outside the lecture theatre/classroom or seminar room
  3. you are ready to make suitable contributions to the discussion in order to:
  1. encourage discussion if students are quiet
  2. help form ideas if students begin to wander off-task
  3. your role will be defined as discussions/a course progresses
  4. you will explicitly but step by step relinquish control of the discussions
  5. you will encourage and support learners to share control of discussions(for example you might ask a learner/group of learners to summarise contributions to a discussion thread/topic or you might ask learners to initiate discussion topics)

Student Centered Forums

With the growing popularity of social networking software like Facebook, Bebo, MySpace and the like, students are leaving schools and coming to Higher and Further Education with a fresh technological sophistication and with fresh expectations for communication. And as school, colleges and universities recognise that reflective and life long learning are significant goals in education, student centered learning and the creation of student centered spaces online are also gaining credence in educational settings. We know that effective learning requires access to social and academic networks for both examine material and emotional support; as such, online communities can suggest a holistic skill construction and support mechanism and recognize that affective activity is effective.

Social forums, often called ‘Virtual Cafes’ or ‘Common Rooms’ can be set up for courses or for programmes, depending on the student need. Such spaces provide a common area for students to come together and discuss unlimited topics, including social activities and educational ideas. They are supportive spaces for students, most successful with large very first and 2nd year courses where students would not otherwise have the chance to communicate with others outside their own tutorial group. It is arguable that students will practice a greater sense of community within and a sense of belonging to an educational institution or individual department having had the practice and convenience of the social forum on their course; this could arguably have implications for retention.

These spaces are typically very active, especially in very first term. Depending on your institution, they are usually self monitored by students, who understand that the same ‘rules’ and ‘netiquette’ that apply to them within any computing space, also apply in Moodle.

The News Forum

Moodle courses automatically generate a News forum which defaults to automatically subscribe all participants in a course. The name of the News Forum can be switched to something more suitable, such as ‘Important Announcements’ or the like. This is a useful feature and many use this forum in a Moodle course to announce exam dates, times or switches to exams, lectures or seminars, as well as significant information about course work across a term or special announcements relating to events.

Teacher/Tutor forums

A teacher/tutor-only forum may be added to a course by creating a hidden forum. Teachers are able to view hidden course activities whereas students cannot.

Some forum suggestions to consider

  1. If your course is at a distance, if your face to face time is limited, or if you just wish to foster a sense of community in your Moodle course which supplements your face to face course, it is good practice to begin with a welcome or introductory message or thread in one of your forums. This welcome or introduction from you invites participants, for example, to post some specific details to introduce themselves to you and their peers. This can be your icebreaker or you can have an icebreaker separately.
  2. If you have two questions for participants to response, commencing the two strands or topics within the forum itself will both help learners to see where to put their responses, and remind them to response all parts of your question.
  3. Recall that you are communicating in an environment that does not have the benefit of spoken tone, eye contact, assets language and the like. Careful consideration of your communication is, therefore, necessary.
  4. Postings to a forum are always written but they can take different forms and you may wish to consider what form best suits the activity. For example, you might choose to articulate a form of contribution in order to be explicit. Thus you might say, ‘This is a think-aloud forum in which, together, we will attempt to taunt out ideas and possibilities’ or ‘This is a formal forum in which you are invited to share your ideas on (topic)’ and, where you select the latter, you might have already suggested learners plan those ideas offline or in another kind of activity within Moodle.
  5. Create a forum where only the teacher can commence discussions, but the students can only reply. Each thread you embark contains an essay question (or several similar ones). The students make a bullet point plan for the essay and post it as a reply. This works well as a revision strategy as the students can see how others have approached the same task. Once everyone has posted their plan, you can begin a discussion as to which plans seem better and why. Creating a scale to use for rating the posts can be useful so that the students can see how helpful other people think their effort were. (Note: At this time, there is no option to hide the “Add fresh discussion topic” button, so you need to tell your students not to begin discussion threads, but to only reply to threads embarked by the teacher. If you only need one thread, then you can use the “a single plain discussion” format and the “Add fresh discussion topic” button is not available to the students.)

Grading forums

The teacher can use the ratings scales to grade student activities in a forum. There are several methods for calculating the grade for a forum that can be found in the Forum settings under grades. There are five ways to aggregate ratings automatically to calculate a forum grade for the Gradebook. These include: Average, Max, Min, Count and Sum.

Forum ratings permit users to evaluate posts in a forum

Forum ratings use Scales to standardize the reporting of spectacle. A forum rating can be included as part of a student’s grade. For example, a teacher might use a custom-made rating scale in a forum and permit students to rate forum posts.

Forum ratings must be permitted and the potential rater must have role permission. Teachers by default have this capability. The teacher role is also able to give permission to a student role in a specific forum to be able to assign a rating to a post. Forum settings and Enabling student ratings has more information.

How to use

AJAX forum rating

Forum rating can be made more user-friendly with the use of AJAX. Users can rate forum posts almost instantly without needing to scroll to the bottom of the page and click the “Send in my latest ratings” button.

AJAX forum rating requires AJAX to be enabled by an administrator in Settings > Site administration > Appearance > AJAX and Javascript and by users in their user profile.

Separate and connected knowing

You can rate forum posts with the Separate and Connected Knowing scale here.

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